Yijia Gu, a Ph.D. student working in...
The Separation of Oil or Tar from Sand Using Ionic Liquids
Dr. Paul Painter, Penn State University
Mike Hickner received a B.S. in Chemical Engineering from Michigan Technological University (Michigan Tech) and a M.S. and Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech). In graduate school he worked under the direction of James E. McGrath and also spent time at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Before joining Penn State as an Assistant Professor in 2007, he was a postdoc and subsequently became a staff member at Sandia National Laboratories. Professor Hickner’s research and teaching interests include all aspects of polymeric materials, polymer micro- and nano-structure, transport characterization, spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and new materials for energy applications.
Research in the Hickner group probes the connection between the molecular identity, nanophase structure, and the resulting transport properties in polymeric materials. Our activities are motivated by application-specific needs that drive fundamental investigations into new materials chemistry and demand incisive measurements of the structure and transport properties of novel materials. We characterize technologically important materials and synthesize model materials systems to probe specific structural and property questions.
A significant thrust in our group is directed towards the study of ion-containing polymers that form robust membranes and absorb water. These types of materials are the basic functional units of solid-state electrochemical systems such as fuel cells and electrolyzers and enable water treatment technologies such as nanofiltration and reverse osmosis. The binding and diffusion of the absorbed water internal to the membrane structure and the interactions between the polymer, ions, and water are important aspects of these materials which ties the transport properties to the nano-scale and molecular features.
We employ tools such as impedance spectroscopy, NMR, TEM, AFM, vibrational spectroscopy, calorimetry, and scattering to probe the structure and transport in multiphase polymeric materials. Our team is composed of a diverse group of materials scientists, chemists, and engineers with wide ranging skills in synthesis, advanced experimental technique development, and analytical analysis. Ultimately, the goal of our group’s work is to have impact on novel applications of polymer membranes and to uncover the fundamental factors that influence the structure and resulting properties of polymeric materials.
Selected from over 65 with more than 3200 citations - full list
Gross, M. L., K. R. Zavadil, M. A. Hickner, “Chemical Mapping and Electrical Conductivity of Carbon Nanotube Patterned Arrays,” J. Mater. Chem. 2011, DOI:10.1039/C1JM11107H.
Kim, S., T. Tighe, B. Schwenzer, J. Yan, J. Zhang, J. Liu, Z. Yang, M. A. Hickner, “Chemical and Mechanical Degradation of Sulfonated Poly(sulfone) Membranes in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries,” J. Appl Electrochem. 2011, DOI:10.1007/s10800-011-0313-0.
Xie, H., T. Saito, M. A. Hickner, “Zeta Potential of Ion-Conductive Membranes by Streaming Current Measurements,” Langmuir 2011, 27(8), 4721–4727.
Mendoza, A. J., M. A. Hickner, J. Morgan, K. Rutter, C. Legzdins, “Raman Spectroscopic Mapping of the Carbon and PTFE Distribution in Gas Diffusion Layers,” Fuel Cells 2011, 11(2), 248-254.
Elabd, Y. A., M. A. Hickner, “Block Copolymers for Fuel Cells,” Macromolecules 2011, 44(1), 1-11.
Saito, T., T. H. Roberts, T. E. Long, B. E. Logan, M. A. Hickner, “Neutral Hydrophilic Cathode Catalyst Binders for Microbial Fuel Cells,” Energ. Environ. Sci. 2011, 4(3), 928-934.
Lee, D. K., T. Saito, A. J. Benesi, M. A. Hickner, H. R. Allcock, “Characterization of Water in Proton Conducting Membranes by Deuterium NMR T1 Relaxation,” J. Phys. Chem. B. 2011, 115(5), 776–783.
Vaughn, D., R. Patel, M. A. Hickner, R. E. Schaak, “Single Crystal Colloidal Nanosheets of GeS and GeSe,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132(43), 15170–15172.
Kim, S., J. Yan, B. Schwenzer, J. Zhang, L. Li, J. Liu, Z. Yang, M. A. Hickner, “Investigation of Sulfonated Poly(phenylsulfone) Membrane for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries,” Electrochem. Comm. 2010, 12, 1650–1653.
Schaefer, Z. L., M. L. Gross, M. A. Hickner, R. E. Schaak, “Uniform Hollow C-Shells: Nano-Engineered Graphitic Supports for Improved Oxygen Reduction Catalysis,” Angew. Chemie Int. Ed. 2010, 49(39), 7045-704.
Moore, H. D., T. Saito, M. A. Hickner “Morphology and Transport Properties of Midblock-sulfonated Triblock Copolymers,” J. Mater. Chem. 2010, 20, 6316-6321.
Hickner, M. A., “Ion-Containing Polymers: Functional Materials for New Energy and Clean Water,” Materials Today 2010, 13(5), 34-41.
Yan, J., M. A. Hickner “Anion Exchange Membranes by Bromination of Benzylmethyl-containing Poly(sulfone)s,” Macromolecules 2010, 43, 2349–2356.
Xu, K., K. Li, C. S. Ewing, M. A. Hickner, Q. Wang, “Synthesis of Proton Conductive Polymers with High Electrochemical Selectivity,” Macromolecules 2010, 43 (4), 1692–1694.
Saito, T., H. D. Moore, M. A. Hickner, “Synthesis of Mid-block Sulfonated Triblock Copolymers,” Macromolecules 2010, 43 (2), 599-601.
Mangiagli, P. M., C. S. Ewing, K. Xu, Q. Wang, M. A. Hickner, “Dynamic Water Uptake of Flexible Ion-Containing Polymer Networks,” Fuel Cells 2009, 9(4), 432-438.
Song, Y., M. A. Hickner, S. R. Challa, R. M. Dorin, R. M. Garcia, H. Wang, Y.-B. Jiang, P. Li, Y. Qiu, F. van Swol, C. J. Medforth, J. E. Miller, T. Nwoga, K. Kawahara, W. Li, J. A. Shelnutt, “Evolution of Dendritic Platinum Nanosheets Into Ripening-Resistant Holey Sheets,” Nano Letters 2009, 9(4), 1534-1539.
Professor Manias received his B.S. degree in Physics from the Aristotle U in Thessaloniki, Greece, and his Ph.D. in Chemistry from U. of Groningen, the Netherlands. He subsequently carried out postdoctoral research in the Materials Science and Engineering department at Cornell U, before joining Penn State as an assistant professor in 1998. His research combines theoretical, simulation, and experimental approaches focused on explaining how nanoscale structures affect the macroscopic materials properties in multi-phase polymer systems, and on further designing appropriate structures and functionalities that lead to high-performance novel materials.
Professor Manias’ research focuses on the development of new high performance polymer and polymer-composite materials, with approaches spanning the range from basic-science fundamentals to engineering development of materials designed for specific applications. All of these research efforts exploit the unique opportunities of nanoscale structures and nanoscopic components in polymer and organic materials.
More specifically, examples of recent work in Professor Manias’ research group include: (a) development of high performance polymer/inorganic nanocomposites, involving synthesis, processing, fundamental physics, and engineering design approaches; (b) atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies of polymer surfaces and polymer nanostructures, including he development of new state-of-the-art instruments and modifications of AFM modes of operation; (c) fundamental understanding of nanoscopically confined polymer electrolytes and lubricants, based on molecular modeling; and (d) design and syntheses of smart polymers that respond to external stimuli –such as temperature, electric fields, and pH– and applications of these smart materials in biomedical and surface applications.
A unique feature of Manias’ research group approach in its investigations is the concurrent in-depth employment of polymer physics, molecular modeling computer simulations, synthetic chemistry, and engineering approaches –design, processing, characterization, structure-property relations, and application-driven materials development. The feedback and cross-fertilization between fundamental science, computer modeling, and engineering approaches offers unprecedented opportunities for fast progress in research, and to date has yielded diverse results that were featured in eminent scientific journals of physics, polymers, and engineering, new technologies that were patented, and new advances in materials that were featured in popularized-science books and magazines.
Professor Colina obtained her Ph.D. at the North Carolina State University (2004) and her B.S. (1993) and M.Sc. (1994) at Simón Bolívar University. She was a Postdoctoral Research Associate in the Department of Chemistry at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She has been a faculty member at Simón Bolívar University and joined the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Pennsylvania State University as Associate Professor in July 2006. She won the 1999 Award for Outstanding Teaching Achievement (at the Assistant Professor level) at Simon Bolivar University, as well as several other awards from the Venezuelan's National Committees from the Development of Higher Education and for the Academic Advancement. She has several international collaborations and has presented the results of her research globally in more than 65 national and international conferences. She has published over 35 papers (including conference proceedings).
Professor Colina utilizes the fusion of materials and computational sciences to obtain solutions to problems that were previously intractable. This fusion creates the opportunity to engineer materials for applications to separations, sensors, microelectronics, drug delivery, and biomaterials. Her group uses materials theory, modeling and computer simulation, with methods ranging from molecular-based equations of state, with a rigorous statistical mechanics basis, to high-performance computer modeling. Her group also has a synergetic relationship with experimentalists, and several national and international collaborative programs, such as: The University of Manchester and Cardiff University, U.K. Professor Colina’s current areas of research fall into three areas. The first area aims for understanding the structure of nanoporous polymers (NPs) for use in applications that exploit their surface chemistry that can range from catalysis, sensors and gas storage to separations. The second area is the improvement of polymer-based processes by gaining a fundamental understanding of polymeric materials. She is developing new methodologies for predicting the effect of specific interactions (self and cross-association) of polymeric materials and their environment. The third area is certain aspects of human pathology associated with a number of diseases, such as hemophilia B and von Willebrand disease. She is studying the growth and dynamics of macromolecular aggregates when proteins dock in a highly orientated manner. Her research interests in this area span a wide range of applications, from structural biochemistry to biosensors.
- Latexes and suspensions
- Environmentally-friendly polymeric surfactants
- Targeting and releasing drugs
- Biomedical applications
1. Castro-Marcano, F., Olivera-Fuentes, C. and C. M. Colina, “Joule-Thomson Inversion Curves aand Third Virial Coefficients for Pure Fluids from Molecular-Based Models,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 47 (22), 8894–8905 (2008).
2. Hoffman, M., Colina, C. M., Harger, A. G., Arepally, G., Pedersen, L. and D. M. Monroe, “Tissue Factor Around Dermal Vessels has Bound Factor VII(a) in the Absence of Injury,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 5 (7),1403-1408 (2007).
3. Colina, C. M., Venkateswarlu, D., Duke, R., Perera, L. and L. G. Pedersen, “What Causes the Enhancement of Activity of FVIIa by Tissue factor?,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 4 (12), 2726-2729 (2006).
4. Colina, C. M. and K. E. Gubbins, “Vapor-Liquid-Liquid Equilibria of n-Perfluoroalkanes/Carbon Dioxide/n-Alkanes Ternary Mixtures,” J. Phys. Chem. B. 109, 2899-2910 (2005).
5. Walker, T. A., Colina, C. M., Gubbins, K. E. and R. J. Spontak, “Thermodynamics of Poly(dimethylsiloxane)/Poly(ethylmethylsiloxane) (PDMS/PEMS) Blends in the Presence of High-Pressure CO2,” Macromolecules, 37, 2588-2595 (2004).
T. C. Mike Chung
Professor of Materials Science and Engineering
325 Steidle Bldg.
Professor Chung obtained his B. S. in Chemistry from Chung Yuan University (Taiwan) in 1976. He came to the U. S. for his graduate study in the Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania in 1979. After finishing his Ph.D work in 1982 on conducting polymers (with Professor A. J. MacDiarmid, Nobel Laureate), he spend two years as a Research Scientist at Institute for polymers and Organic Solids (with Professor Alan J. Heeger, Nobel Laureate), University of California, Santa Barbara. Between 1984 and 1989, he was a Senior Research Staff in Corporate Research, Exxon Company. In 1989 he joined the faculty of the Pennsylvania State University as an associate professor and became professor of Polymer Science in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering in 1993. He is author of about 200 professional publications, including 2 books and 45 U.S. patents.
Professor Chung is interested in the development of new polymer chemistry that can lead to new materials with unique chemical and physical properties for applications. In his recent research activities, he has been focusing on the technologies relative to energy and environmental issues. Several current research projects include (a) functionalization of polyolefins (PE, PP, EP, etc.) via the combination of metallocene catalysts and reactive comonomers and chain transfer agents to prepare polyolefins containing side-chain or chain-end functional groups, (b) synthesis of long chain branched polyolefin, including i-PP and s-PS, and studying their thin film processing, (c) studying control radical polymerization based on new functional borane/oxygen initiators to prepare functional fluoropolymers, (d) developing new energy storage technology on the polymer thin film capacitors with high energy density, high power density, and low loss, (e) studying new polyolefin-based ion conductors that show high ion conductivity, good fuel selectivity, long term stability, and cost effective, (f) investigating new polyolefin-based oil superabsorbent (oil-SAP) for oil spill recovery, (g) synthesizing boron substituted carbon (B/C) materials and doped derivatives for hydrogen storage. My group at Penn State is recognized as a leading research group in the functionalization of polyolefin and fluoropolymers with more than 180 papers and 50 US and international patents published in the past 20 years.
In light of the 2010 BP disaster in Gulf of Mexico and the 2011 Exxon oil spill in Yellowstone river, showing no effective technology for recovering oil spills and preventing pollution in the air and water, we have recently developed a new polyolefin-based oil super-absorbent polymer (oil-SAP) that exhibits high oil absorption capability (up to 50 times of its weight), fast kinetics, easy recovery from water surface, and no water absorption. The recovered oil/oil-SAP solid is suitable for regular refining process (no pollutants and no wastes). This cost effective new oil-SAP technology shall dramatically reduce the environmental impacts from oil spills and recover most of precious natural resource.
Joan M. Redwing received her B.S. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Pittsburgh and her Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. She was employed as a research engineer at Advanced Technology Materials, Inc. from 1994-1999 working on metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of group III-nitride materials. Dr. Redwing joined the faculty of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Penn State University in 2000. She holds a joint appointment in the Department of Electrical Engineering and is a member of the Materials Research Institute. Dr. Redwing’s research interests are in the general area of electronic materials synthesis and characterization with a specific emphasis on semiconductor thin film and nanostructure fabrication by chemical vapor deposition. She currently serves as secretary of the American Association for Crystal Growth and is an associate editor for the Journal of Crystal Growth. She is a co-author on over 130 publications in refereed journals and holds 8 U.S. patents.
Dr. Redwing’s research interests lie in the general area of electronic and optoelectronic materials synthesis and characterization with a special emphasis on chemical vapor deposition processing of semiconductor thin films and nanostructures. A current area of research focuses on the growth of semiconductor nanowires utilizing a combination of templating and directed growth techniques. This work is aimed at understanding the fundamental mechanisms of nanowire growth and the impact of nanoscale phenomena on materials synthesis. The fabrication of radial and axial nanowire heterostructures and p-n junctions is also under investigation for nanoscale device development. This research is an integral part of several multidisciplinary research team projects at Penn State which are focused on the development of nanowire-based devices for applications in microelectronics, chemical and biological sensing and solar energy conversion. The deposition of wide bandgap group III-nitride ((Al,Ga,In)N) thin films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is another active area of research. These materials are used in a wide variety of electronic and optoelectronic devices including high brightness light emitting diodes used in solid state lighting and high frequency/high power transistors for radar and wireless networks. The development of group III-nitride devices is often limited by film cracking which results from intrinsic and extrinsic stress due to lattice and thermal expansion mismatches between the film and substrate. The research is focused on understanding the microstructural mechanisms responsible for film stress and developing strategies to mitigate stress and film cracking. In-situ laser reflectance is used to study dynamic changes in film stress during deposition. This information is correlated to changes in film microstructure and dislocation density measured post-growth and is used to develop models of stress generation and relaxation in the group III-nitride materials system.
Microelectronics, photovoltaics, chemical and biological sensors, light emitting diodes, high frequency/high power electronics.
R. Allen Kimel
Assistant Professor of Materials Science and Engineering;
Associate Head for Undergraduate Studies
124 Steidle Building
Dr. Kimel completed his B.S. degree in Materials Science and Engineering at North Carolina State University. He then joined the US Peace Corps and was sent to Swaziland, Africa to teach math, chemistry and physics at the high school level. Upon returning to the states Dr. Kimel completed a M.S. degree in Chemistry from the University of North Carolina Greensboro. He then proceeded to Pennsylvania State University to complete a PhD in Materials Science and Engineering with a focus in Ceramics. Dr. Kimel joined the Penn State faculty in the summer of 2002 after completing his PhD. He was hired to oversee the design and building of the new undergraduate laboratory in Steidle Building and to re-design the undergraduate laboratory curriculum. Since joining the faculty, Dr. Kimel has created five new lecture and laboratory courses spanning such subjects as materials chemistry, microstructural analysis, quantification of materials properties and characterization of polymers.
Dr. Kimel’s research interests are twofold. On the education side, Dr. Kimel develops new and exciting laboratory curriculums to help enhance students’ classroom learning with hands-on laboratory experiences. He also develops summer camp experiences based on nanoscience and nanotechnology and materials in renewable energy to inspire high school students to choose a career path in science and engineering in general and materials science and engineering in particular and provide current middle and high school teachers the opportunity to further their professional development. Dr. Kimel’s research program focuses on the development of novel techniques for the synthesis and processing of powders in an aqueous environment from the nanometer to micrometer scales. Synthesis of nanosized particles is commonplace, but synthesis and processing of nanosized particles in water is a nontrivial task. The challenge lies in preventing aggregation of the as-synthesized particles as well as degradation of the particle surface. In some systems, the aqueous degradation process can result in total dissolution of the particle. Preventing aggregation of a nanosized particle system entails accounting for the expansive amount of surface area available for chemical reaction. Knowledge in colloidal and materials chemistry is the foundation for tackling such technical issues as the synthesis and processing of nanoparticulate materials, corrosion protection of powder systems, and recycling of waste products produced from powder processing routes.
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