Dr. Gopalan received his B.Tech. in Metallurgical Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai, in 1989, and his Ph.D. in Materials Science and Engineering from Cornell University in 1995. He was a postdoctoral scholar in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at the Carnegie Mellon University from 1995-1996, and was subsequently awarded a director funded postdoctoral fellowship at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, where he performed research on ferroelectrics and electro-optics till 1998.
He joined Pennsylvania State University as an assistant professor in December 1998, and became a full professor in 2007. He has been awarded the National Science Foundation CAEEER award (2000), Robert R. Coble Award from the American ceramics Society (2002), Corning Faculty fellowship in Ceramic Sciences (2004), National Research Council Faculty Fellowship (2004), Wilson award for excellence in research (2005), Eshbach Faculty Fellow at the Northwestern University (2007), Richard M. Fulrath award from the American ceramics Society (2009).
He is the associate director of the Center for Optical Technologies since 2003, has served on the editorial board of the Annual Reviews of Materials research since 2004, and served as the Chairman of the User Executive Committee for the Center for Nanophase Materials Science, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in 2010-11. Gopalan has published over 150 papers, and has written five book chapters on ferroelectric complex oxides, nonlinear optics, optical metamaterials, and scanning probe microscopy.
Our research focuses on the science and technology of nonlinear optical materials. The work straddles materials science, physics, and optical engineering. We have three areas of current interest:
Experimental tools include ultrafast femtosecond lasers, electro-optics and fiber optics, scanning probe microscopies, dielectric and magnetic measurements, clean room, cryogenics, and simulations based on home-written MATLAB as well as commercial codes.
Multiferroics enable electrical control of magnetic devices, and vice versa, and dual electrical-magnetic storage media. Nonlinear optical devices are targeted for optical communications and infrared applications. The vision of hybrid semiconductor-metal-silica structures is all-fiber optoelectronics, where light generation, modulation and detection can be performed within a fiber.
V. Gopalan, D. B. Litvin, “New symmetries in crystals and handed structures,” Nature Materials , DOI: 10.1038/nmat2987 (2011). http://www.nature.com/nmat/journal/vaop/ncurrent/abs/nmat2987.html
J. R. Sparks, R. He, Noel Healy, M. Krishnamurthi, A. C. Peacock, P. J.A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Low loss ZnSe Optical Fiber Waveguides,” Advanced Materials, 23, 1647-1651 (2011).
A. Vasudevarao, A. N. Morozovska, I. Grinberg, S. Bhattacharya, Y. Li, S. Jesse, P. Wu, K. Seal, S. Choudhury, E.A. Eliseev, S. Svechnikov, D. Lee, S. Phillpot, L.Q. Chen, A. M. Rappe, V. Gopalan and S.V. Kalinin, “Correlated polarization switching in the proximity of a 180 degree domain wall,” Phys. Rev. B. 82, 024111 (2010).
J. H. Lee, L. Fang, E. Vlahos, X. Ke, Y. W. Jung, L. Fitting Kourkoutis, J.W. Kim, P. Ryan, T. Heeg, M. Roeckerath, V. Goian, M. Bernhagen, R. Uecker, P. C. Hammel, K. M. Rabe, S. Kamba, J. Schubert, J. W. Freeland, D. A. Muller, C. J. Fennie, P. Schiffer, V. Gopalan, E. Johnston-Halperin & D. G. Schlom, “Creating a Strong Ferroelectric Ferromagnet via Spin-Phonon Coupling,” Nature 466, 954 (2010).
I. A. Temnykh, N. F. Baril, Z. Liu, J. V. Badding, V. Gopalan, “Optical multistability in a silicon-core silica-cladding fiber,” Optics Express, 18, 5305-5313 (2010).
Susan Trolier-McKinstry is a professor of ceramic science and engineering at the Pennsylvania State University, where she also serves as the director of the W. M. Keck Smart Materials Integration Laboratory. She obtained B.S. and M.S. degrees in Ceramic Science and Engineering in 1987, and a Ph.D. in Ceramic Science in 1992, all from Penn State. On graduation she joined the faculty there. She has held visiting appointments at the Hitachi Central Research Laboratory in Kokubunji, Tokyo, the Army Research Laboratory at Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, and the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne in Switzerland. Her main research interests include dielectric and piezoelectric thin films, the development of texture in bulk ceramic piezoelectrics, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. She has co-authored >180 papers in these areas, and has several patents.
Professor Trolier-McKinstry’s research interests are centered around structure-processing-property relationships in electroceramics. This includes work on dielectric and piezoelectric thin films, texture development in piezoelectric ceramics, and spectroscopic ellipsometry.
In the piezoelectric films area, Prof. Trolier-McKinstry is developing sensors and actuators that are compatible with CMOS electronics (and hence low driving voltages). Her group has approached this by trying to maximize the figure of merit for the material response through control of composition, crystallographic orientation, grain size, and composite connectivity. The work includes fundamental studies on the factors that control domain wall contributions to the properties and the role of octahedral tilt in influencing response. More applied research ranges from damage-free patterning approaches of complex oxides, to fabrication of piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems, including accelerometers, pumps, switches, adaptive optics components, and ultrasound systems with close-coupled electronics. They are also working on preparing high strain actuator films at low processing temperatures (< 400oC) via pulsed laser crystallization.
Bulk and thin film dielectrics are of interest for on and off-chip decoupling capacitors, as well as tunable components. Prof. Trolier-McKinstry’s group emphasizes the development of a wide range of dielectrics covering the permittivity range from 30 to 3000. Recent work has focused on using Rayleigh and Preisach methods to quantify the properties over a wide range of ac and dc electric fields. The same tools are also being used to study reliability and the relative roles of various defect types in controlling the properties.
Texture development can be used to improve electromechanical response in bulk piezoelectrics. Joint programs with Prof. Messing have demonstrated that templated grain growth can be utilized to achieve textured ceramics with properties intermediate between those of randomly axed ceramics and single crystals.
Technologies affected by her research include on and off-chip decoupling capacitors, tunable filters and antennae, miniaturized sensors, micromachined analytical instrumentation, high frequency biomedical ultrasound, and piezoelectric actuators.
T. C. Mike Chung
Professor of Materials Science and Engineering
325 Steidle Bldg.
Professor Chung obtained his B. S. in Chemistry from Chung Yuan University (Taiwan) in 1976. He came to the U. S. for his graduate study in the Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania in 1979. After finishing his Ph.D work in 1982 on conducting polymers (with Professor A. J. MacDiarmid, Nobel Laureate), he spend two years as a Research Scientist at Institute for polymers and Organic Solids (with Professor Alan J. Heeger, Nobel Laureate), University of California, Santa Barbara. Between 1984 and 1989, he was a Senior Research Staff in Corporate Research, Exxon Company. In 1989 he joined the faculty of the Pennsylvania State University as an associate professor and became professor of Polymer Science in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering in 1993. He is author of about 200 professional publications, including 2 books and 45 U.S. patents.
Professor Chung is interested in the development of new polymer chemistry that can lead to new materials with unique chemical and physical properties for applications. In his recent research activities, he has been focusing on the technologies relative to energy and environmental issues. Several current research projects include (a) functionalization of polyolefins (PE, PP, EP, etc.) via the combination of metallocene catalysts and reactive comonomers and chain transfer agents to prepare polyolefins containing side-chain or chain-end functional groups, (b) synthesis of long chain branched polyolefin, including i-PP and s-PS, and studying their thin film processing, (c) studying control radical polymerization based on new functional borane/oxygen initiators to prepare functional fluoropolymers, (d) developing new energy storage technology on the polymer thin film capacitors with high energy density, high power density, and low loss, (e) studying new polyolefin-based ion conductors that show high ion conductivity, good fuel selectivity, long term stability, and cost effective, (f) investigating new polyolefin-based oil superabsorbent (oil-SAP) for oil spill recovery, (g) synthesizing boron substituted carbon (B/C) materials and doped derivatives for hydrogen storage. My group at Penn State is recognized as a leading research group in the functionalization of polyolefin and fluoropolymers with more than 180 papers and 50 US and international patents published in the past 20 years.
In light of the 2010 BP disaster in Gulf of Mexico and the 2011 Exxon oil spill in Yellowstone river, showing no effective technology for recovering oil spills and preventing pollution in the air and water, we have recently developed a new polyolefin-based oil super-absorbent polymer (oil-SAP) that exhibits high oil absorption capability (up to 50 times of its weight), fast kinetics, easy recovery from water surface, and no water absorption. The recovered oil/oil-SAP solid is suitable for regular refining process (no pollutants and no wastes). This cost effective new oil-SAP technology shall dramatically reduce the environmental impacts from oil spills and recover most of precious natural resource.
Dr. Messing received his B.S. in Ceramic Engineering at Alfred University in 1973, and spent a semester at the Friedrich Alexander University in Erlangen, Germany. He received his Ph.D. in Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Florida in 1977 and joined Penn State in 1980. Messing was Founding Director of the NSF Industry/University Cooperative Research Center on Particulate Materials in 1991 and became Director of the Materials Research Laboratory in 1997. He was Visiting Professor at the University of Paris, Research Fellow at Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia, and visiting faculty at ETH-Zurich. Messing is Distinguished Professor of Ceramic Science and Engineering and Head of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering. In 2002/3 he was President of the American Ceramic Society. He is currently Editor in Chief of the Journal of Materials Research. Messing has published over 250 papers and co-edited 13 books on solution synthesis, phase transformations, processing-microstructure relations, sintering and templated grain growth.
The Messing group is currently focused on developing processes for producing optically transparent ceramics (e.g. Nd-doped YAG), high performance piezoelectrics, and solid state grown single crystals. The strategy is to control sintering and grain growth processes by first establishing a fundamental understanding of how powder synthesis, ceramic phase formation, and powder shaping influence the achievement of specific microstructure-property objectives. We are expert in powder synthesis by spray pyrolysis and phase formation from solution precursors. It has been shown that phase separation in sol gel and precursor system formation plays a major role on phase formation during heating in the alumina, mullite, and lead magnesium niobate systems. In some cases we have developed successful strategies to induce and control phase development and transformation by solid state seeding. We have also carried out extensive studies on the sintering of alumina, mullite, and PMN-PT. In a series of papers we reported how stresses evolve in co-sintered SOFCs and LTCCs. As a result of these studies cyclic loading dilatometry (CLD) has been established as a reliable tool for measuring the viscosity of sintering systems. In the late 90s we developed a novel templated grain growth (TGG) process to obtain oriented microstructures of unprecedented control. In this process we align or position template particles that act as preferred growth sites. Uniquely textured ceramics have been produced by TGG. The properties of texured PMN-PT approach those of single crystals. We use a similar strategy to grow single crystals of PMN-PT, YAG, and BaTiO3 from a dense ceramics by the solid state conversion process. Some of the materials we have studied include mullite, alumina, barium titanate, lead magnesium niobate, strontium barium niobate, sodium bismuth titanate, and yttrium aluminum garnet.
Powder synthesis and sintering impact technologies requiring phase pure and submicron powders. The microstructure effort has direct impact on ceramics in which specific orientations or single crystals are desired and include piezoelectric, structural and optical properties. Materials studied include mullite, alumina, barium titanate, lead magnesium niobate, and strontium barium niobate.
Long-Qing Chen is Distinguished Professor of Materials Science and Engineering and Professor of Engineering Science and Mechanics at the Pennsylvania State University. He is a short-term visiting Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at Tsinghua University under the short-term 1000-Scholar program, a guest Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at Zhejiang University, and a guest Professor of Physics at the Beijing University of Science and Technology in China. He received his B.S. degree in Materials Science and Engineering from Zhejiang University in China in 1982. After spending one year as an assistant instructor at Zhejiang University, he came to the United States in 1983 and received his M.S. degree in Materials Science and Engineering from the State University of New York at Stony Brook in 1985 and a Ph.D. degree in Materials Science and Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1990. After a two-year post-doc appointment with Professor Armen G. Khachaturyanat Rutgers University, he joined the faculty at Penn State as an Assistant Professor of Materials Science and Engineering in 1992. He was promoted to Associated Professor in 1998 and Professor in 2002. Professor Chen teaches undergraduate thermodynamics of materials and graduate kinetics of materials processes and also co-teaches one graduate course and one undergraduate course in computational materials science in the department. Professor Chen's main research interest is developing multiscale computational models for predicting microstructure evolution in materials using a combination of atomistic/first-principles calculations and phase-field methods. In particular, he is interested in microstructure evolution during phase transformations, grain growth, Ostwald ripening, ferroelectric and multiferroic domain switching, and coupled ionic/electronic transport in electrochemical systems. His research group collaborates actively with numerous experimental groups, applied mathematicians, and other fellow computational materials scientists and physicists as well as with more than a dozen companies and national labs. Professor Chen has published over 350 authored or co-authored papers (H-index = 51, Number of Citations >10,000), 1 patent licensed by Intel, and co-edited 3 books in the area of computational materials science of microstructures and properties. He has given more than 200 invited talks including 6 at the Gordon Research Conferences. Professor Chen's current and former graduate students have received more than 40 awards including Materials Research Society Graduate Student Gold and Silver Medal Awards, American Ceramic Society Graduate Excellence in Materials Science Awards, Acta Materialia best student paper award, Penn State Materials Research Institute best Ph.D. thesis research award, TMS Young Leader Award, etc. Professor Chen received numerous awards for his work including:
Dr. Chen’s main research interest is in the fundamental understanding of the thermodynamics and kinetics of phase transformations and mesoscale microstructure evolution in bulk solid and thin films using computer simulations. Essentially all engineering materials contain certain types of microstructures, and our success of designing new materials is largely dependent on our ability to control them. Microstructure is a general term that refers to a spatial distribution of structural features that can be phases of different compositions and/or crystal structures, or grains of different orientations, or domains of different structural variants, or domains of different electrical or magnetic polarization, as well as structural defects such as dislocations. It is the size, shape, and spatial arrangement of the local structural features that determine the physical properties of a material such as mechanical, electrical, magnetic and optical properties. For the last decade, Dr. Chen’s group at Penn State is particularly active in developing phase-field models for microstructure evolution during various materials processes including grain growth, coherent precipitation, ferroelectric domain formation, particle coarsening, domain structure evolution in thin films, phase transformation in the presence of structural defects, and effect of stress on microstructure evolution. Current research focus is on the effect of stress/strain on ferroelectric phase transitions and domain structure evolution in ferroelectric and multiferroic thin films, domain structures in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys, electrode microstructure evolution in solid oxide fuel cells and batteries, precipitate microstructure evolution in Al-, Mg-, Ti- and Ni-alloys, strain-dominated morphological evolution, effect of defects such as dislocations on microstructure evolution. Dr. Chen’s group collaborates extensively with experimentalists and with industry.
Alloy development for aerospace and automobile iapplications
Ferroelectric and ferromagnetic thin films for memory, capacitor and electromechanical system applications
Solid oxide fuel cells and batteries
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