Yijia Gu, a Ph.D. student working in...
Assistant Professor of Materials Science and Engineering and the
Norris B. McFarlane Faculty Professorship
202A Steidle Building
Allison Beese received her B.S. degree in Mechanical Engineering from Penn State University. Following her undergraduate studies, she was employed at Lockheed Martin’s Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory, where she designed large scale experiments and performed failure analysis of nuclear power plant components. She then entered graduate school at MIT, where she conducted research in Professor Tomasz Wierzbicki’s Impact and Crashworthiness Laboratory, and was awarded a Department of Defense National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship. She earned her M.S. and her Ph.D. degrees in Mechanical Engineering with a minor in Biomechanics at MIT.
Her doctoral research involved experimental characterization and modeling of the large deformation behavior of anisotropic steel sheets undergoing strain-induced phase transformation. Dr. Beese spent two years as a postdoctoral fellow in Professor Horacio Espinosa’s Micro and Nanomechanics Laboratory at Northwestern University, where she experimentally studied fabrication-structure-property relationships of both carbon based nanomaterials, using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based testing techniques in situ a transmission electron microscope (TEM), and macroscopic materials derived from nanoscale carbon constituents.
She joined the Materials Science and Engineering faculty at Penn State in July 2013.
Dr. Beese’s research interests are in experimental and computational multiscale mechanics of materials ranging from metals to composites. Her research focuses on developing experimental methods to elucidate the connections between the evolving microstructure and the macroscopic deformation, dissipation, and failure properties of materials. Using the experimental results, predictive large deformation and failure models can be developed.
One particular material of interest is steel, which remains one of the most widely used structural materials, and new grades of steels are constantly being developed. Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are a particularly attractive class of steels, as they offer increased strength without sacrificing ductility, lending themselves to the application in lightweight vehicle structures where high mass specific energy absorption is critically important. However, in order to fully exploit the benefits of these AHSS, it is imperative to understand the mechanisms of deformation and failure in order to develop physically-based predictive computational models that can be used in the forming and crash predictions of large scale structural components.
Metastable austenitic steels belong to the class of AHSS. They offer a combination of high strength and ductility, which is attributed to their characteristic deformation-induced phase transformation. Dr. Beese has developed experimental methods to quantify the evolution of the microstructure non-destructively with applied large deformation and varying stress state, resulting in the development of a finite-deformation anisotropic plasticity model that describes the constitutive behavior of stainless steel sheets undergoing phase transformation from austenite to martensite. Current research is focused on expanding these techniques and models to different AHSS, and experimentally and computationally describing the fracture properties of these AHSS.
She also has experience in the design and testing of carbon-based composite materials, where a macroscale composite is composed of nanoscale constituents: either carbon nanotubes or graphene oxide. These materials are investigated toward the development of high-performance composites for armor applications.
Beese, A.M., D. Papkov, S. Li, Y. Dzenis, and H.D. Espinosa. In situ TEM elucidation of diameter and structure effects on mechanical properties of electrospun carbonized fibers. Carbon, vol. 60, pp. 246-253, 2013.
Beese, A.M., S. Sarkar, A. Nair, M. Naraghi, Z. An, A. Moravsky, R.O. Loutfy, M.J. Buehler, S.T. Nguyen, and H.D. Espinosa. Bio-inspired Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composite Yarns with Hydrogen Bond-Mediated Lateral Interactions. ACS Nano, vol. 7(4), pp. 3434-3446, 2013.
Beese, A.M., and D. Mohr. Anisotropic Plasticity Model Coupled with Lode Angle Dependent Strain-Induced Transformation Kinetics Law. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, vol. 60(11), pp. 1922-1940, 2012.
Beese, A.M., and D. Mohr. Effect of Stress Triaxiality and Lode Angle on the Kinetics of Strain-induced Austenite-to-Martensite Transformation, Acta Materialia, vol. 59 (7), pp. 2589-2600, 2011.
Beese, A.M., and D. Mohr. Identification of the Direction-dependence of the Martensitic Transformation in Stainless Steel using In-situ Magnetic Permeability Measurements, Experimental Mechanics, vol. 51(5), pp. 667-676, 2011.
David J. Green
Professor Emeritus of Ceramic Science and Engineering
Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Relationships between fabrication, microstructure and the properties of
brittle materials; including:
RESEARCH STORY A
Technical Fellow, Materials Research
Alcoa Technical Center;
Adjunct Professor of Materials Science and Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University
Susan Trolier-McKinstry is a professor of ceramic science and engineering at the Pennsylvania State University, where she also serves as the director of the W. M. Keck Smart Materials Integration Laboratory. She obtained B.S. and M.S. degrees in Ceramic Science and Engineering in 1987, and a Ph.D. in Ceramic Science in 1992, all from Penn State. On graduation she joined the faculty there. She has held visiting appointments at the Hitachi Central Research Laboratory in Kokubunji, Tokyo, the Army Research Laboratory at Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, and the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne in Switzerland. Her main research interests include dielectric and piezoelectric thin films, the development of texture in bulk ceramic piezoelectrics, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. She has co-authored >180 papers in these areas, and has several patents.
Professor Trolier-McKinstry’s research interests are centered around structure-processing-property relationships in electroceramics. This includes work on dielectric and piezoelectric thin films, texture development in piezoelectric ceramics, and spectroscopic ellipsometry.
In the piezoelectric films area, Prof. Trolier-McKinstry is developing sensors and actuators that are compatible with CMOS electronics (and hence low driving voltages). Her group has approached this by trying to maximize the figure of merit for the material response through control of composition, crystallographic orientation, grain size, and composite connectivity. The work includes fundamental studies on the factors that control domain wall contributions to the properties and the role of octahedral tilt in influencing response. More applied research ranges from damage-free patterning approaches of complex oxides, to fabrication of piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems, including accelerometers, pumps, switches, adaptive optics components, and ultrasound systems with close-coupled electronics. They are also working on preparing high strain actuator films at low processing temperatures (< 400oC) via pulsed laser crystallization.
Bulk and thin film dielectrics are of interest for on and off-chip decoupling capacitors, as well as tunable components. Prof. Trolier-McKinstry’s group emphasizes the development of a wide range of dielectrics covering the permittivity range from 30 to 3000. Recent work has focused on using Rayleigh and Preisach methods to quantify the properties over a wide range of ac and dc electric fields. The same tools are also being used to study reliability and the relative roles of various defect types in controlling the properties.
Texture development can be used to improve electromechanical response in bulk piezoelectrics. Joint programs with Prof. Messing have demonstrated that templated grain growth can be utilized to achieve textured ceramics with properties intermediate between those of randomly axed ceramics and single crystals.
Technologies affected by her research include on and off-chip decoupling capacitors, tunable filters and antennae, miniaturized sensors, micromachined analytical instrumentation, high frequency biomedical ultrasound, and piezoelectric actuators.
Long-Qing Chen is Distinguished Professor of Materials Science and Engineering and Professor of Engineering Science and Mechanics at the Pennsylvania State University. He is a short-term visiting Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at Tsinghua University under the short-term 1000-Scholar program, a guest Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at Zhejiang University, and a guest Professor of Physics at the Beijing University of Science and Technology in China. He received his B.S. degree in Materials Science and Engineering from Zhejiang University in China in 1982. After spending one year as an assistant instructor at Zhejiang University, he came to the United States in 1983 and received his M.S. degree in Materials Science and Engineering from the State University of New York at Stony Brook in 1985 and a Ph.D. degree in Materials Science and Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1990. After a two-year post-doc appointment with Professor Armen G. Khachaturyanat Rutgers University, he joined the faculty at Penn State as an Assistant Professor of Materials Science and Engineering in 1992. He was promoted to Associated Professor in 1998 and Professor in 2002. Professor Chen teaches undergraduate thermodynamics of materials and graduate kinetics of materials processes and also co-teaches one graduate course and one undergraduate course in computational materials science in the department. Professor Chen's main research interest is developing multiscale computational models for predicting microstructure evolution in materials using a combination of atomistic/first-principles calculations and phase-field methods. In particular, he is interested in microstructure evolution during phase transformations, grain growth, Ostwald ripening, ferroelectric and multiferroic domain switching, and coupled ionic/electronic transport in electrochemical systems. His research group collaborates actively with numerous experimental groups, applied mathematicians, and other fellow computational materials scientists and physicists as well as with more than a dozen companies and national labs. Professor Chen has published over 350 authored or co-authored papers (H-index = 51, Number of Citations >10,000), 1 patent licensed by Intel, and co-edited 3 books in the area of computational materials science of microstructures and properties. He has given more than 200 invited talks including 6 at the Gordon Research Conferences. Professor Chen's current and former graduate students have received more than 40 awards including Materials Research Society Graduate Student Gold and Silver Medal Awards, American Ceramic Society Graduate Excellence in Materials Science Awards, Acta Materialia best student paper award, Penn State Materials Research Institute best Ph.D. thesis research award, TMS Young Leader Award, etc. Professor Chen received numerous awards for his work including:
Dr. Chen’s main research interest is in the fundamental understanding of the thermodynamics and kinetics of phase transformations and mesoscale microstructure evolution in bulk solid and thin films using computer simulations. Essentially all engineering materials contain certain types of microstructures, and our success of designing new materials is largely dependent on our ability to control them. Microstructure is a general term that refers to a spatial distribution of structural features that can be phases of different compositions and/or crystal structures, or grains of different orientations, or domains of different structural variants, or domains of different electrical or magnetic polarization, as well as structural defects such as dislocations. It is the size, shape, and spatial arrangement of the local structural features that determine the physical properties of a material such as mechanical, electrical, magnetic and optical properties. For the last decade, Dr. Chen’s group at Penn State is particularly active in developing phase-field models for microstructure evolution during various materials processes including grain growth, coherent precipitation, ferroelectric domain formation, particle coarsening, domain structure evolution in thin films, phase transformation in the presence of structural defects, and effect of stress on microstructure evolution. Current research focus is on the effect of stress/strain on ferroelectric phase transitions and domain structure evolution in ferroelectric and multiferroic thin films, domain structures in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys, electrode microstructure evolution in solid oxide fuel cells and batteries, precipitate microstructure evolution in Al-, Mg-, Ti- and Ni-alloys, strain-dominated morphological evolution, effect of defects such as dislocations on microstructure evolution. Dr. Chen’s group collaborates extensively with experimentalists and with industry.
Alloy development for aerospace and automobile iapplications
Ferroelectric and ferromagnetic thin films for memory, capacitor and electromechanical system applications
Solid oxide fuel cells and batteries
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