Yijia Gu, a Ph.D. student working in...
John R. Hellmann
Professor of Materials Science and Engineering,
Associate Dean for Graduate Education & Research
248 Deike Building
John R. Hellmann is Professor of Materials Science and Engineering and Associate Dean for Education in the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences. As a Penn State faculty member since 1986, he has also served as Associate Director of the Center for Advanced Materials (1986-1995), Chairman of the Ceramic Science and Engineering Program (1998-2001), and as Associate Head for Undergraduate Studies in Materials Science and Engineering (2001-2007). In addition to maintaining an active teaching and research portfolio, in his new position as Associate Dean he is responsible for curriculum, accreditation, recruiting and retention, scholarships, international internships, and outreach activities in the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences
His research interests concern the mechanical reliability and thermochemical durability of ceramics, metals, and intermetallic materials in severe thermal environments. He has active research programs in development and characterization of materials for gas turbines, advanced propulsion systems, and enhanced oil and natural gas recovery technology, as well as in the design and fabrication of laminated ceramic composites possessing engineered stress states for use as armor and cutting tools. He has published over one hundred peer reviewed papers on research supported by the Department of Energy, NASA, Office of Naval Research, National Science Foundation, and industry, and has supervised the research of over 120 graduate and undergraduate students, many of whom have received national and international awards for their work.
Professor Hellmann earned his bachelor and doctorate degrees in Ceramic Science at Penn State, followed by a five year stint as a member of technical staff at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico prior to returning to the faculty at Penn State.
A Fellow of the American Ceramic Society, Professor Hellmann has also served on the Society’s Board of Directors, as President of the Ceramic Educational Council, President of the National Institute of Ceramic Engineers, Associate Editor of the Journal of the American Ceramic Society, and was recently named a Distinguished Mentor by the Society for his role in advising and nurturing students and young professionals in the field of materials science and engineering.
Solid oxide fuel cells; heat exchangers; radiant tubes; thermal and environmental barrier coatings; land-based and airborne gas turbine systems; hot gas filtration and separation; glass manufacturing; machine tools and tribological applications; ceramic-, glass-, metal-, and intermetallic composite design; preceramic polymer precursor processing of foams, composites, coatings and for joining; development of advanced materials for enhanced recovery of oil and natural gas.
1. M. Fox and John R. Hellmann, “Microstructure and Creep Behavior of SiAlON Materials,” INVITED REVIEW PAPER in Int’l. J. of Appl. Ceram. Tech., 5(2)138-154(2008).
2. Walter G. Luscher, John R. Hellmann, David L. Shelleman, and Albert E. Segall, “A Critical Review of the Diametral Compression Method for Determining the Tensile Strength of Spherical Aggregates,“ J. Testing and Evaluation, 35(6)2007.
3. Walter G. Luscher, John R. Hellmann, Barry E. Scheetz, and Brett A. Wilson, “Strength Enhancement of Aluminosilicate Aggregate Through Modified Thermal Treatment,” Int’l. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol., 3(2) 157-163 (2006)
4. K.M. Fox, J.R. Hellmann, E.C. Dickey, D.J. Green, D.L. Shelleman, and R.L. Yeckley, “Impression and Compression Creep of SiAlON Ceramics,” J.Am. Ceram. Soc., 89(8)2555-2563(2006).
5. Matthew H. Krohn, John R. Hellmann, Bernard Mahieu, and Carlo G. Pantano, “Effect of Tin-Oxide on the Physical Properties of Soda-Lime-Silica Glass,” J. Non-Crystalline Sol., 351(2005)455-465.
6. M. Fox and John R. Hellmann, “Microstructure and Creep Behavior of SiAlON Materials,” INVITED REVIEW PAPER in the topical issue on silicon nitride ceramics in the Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology, accepted for publication September 10, 2007
7. Walter G. Luscher, John R. Hellmann, David L. Shelleman, and Albert E. Segall, “A Critical Review of the Diametral Compression Method for Determining the Tensile Strength of Spherical Aggregates,“ J. Testing and Evaluation, 35(6)2007
8. Kevin M. Fox, John R. Hellmann, Mark S. Angelone, and Russell L. Yeckley, “Refinement of the a-Phase Area in the Yb-SiAlON System,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 90(5)1607-1610(2007)
Mike Hickner received a B.S. in Chemical Engineering from Michigan Technological University (Michigan Tech) and a M.S. and Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech). In graduate school he worked under the direction of James E. McGrath and also spent time at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Before joining Penn State as an Assistant Professor in 2007, he was a postdoc and subsequently became a staff member at Sandia National Laboratories. Professor Hickner’s research and teaching interests include all aspects of polymeric materials, polymer micro- and nano-structure, transport characterization, spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and new materials for energy applications.
Research in the Hickner group probes the connection between the molecular identity, nanophase structure, and the resulting transport properties in polymeric materials. Our activities are motivated by application-specific needs that drive fundamental investigations into new materials chemistry and demand incisive measurements of the structure and transport properties of novel materials. We characterize technologically important materials and synthesize model materials systems to probe specific structural and property questions.
A significant thrust in our group is directed towards the study of ion-containing polymers that form robust membranes and absorb water. These types of materials are the basic functional units of solid-state electrochemical systems such as fuel cells and electrolyzers and enable water treatment technologies such as nanofiltration and reverse osmosis. The binding and diffusion of the absorbed water internal to the membrane structure and the interactions between the polymer, ions, and water are important aspects of these materials which ties the transport properties to the nano-scale and molecular features.
We employ tools such as impedance spectroscopy, NMR, TEM, AFM, vibrational spectroscopy, calorimetry, and scattering to probe the structure and transport in multiphase polymeric materials. Our team is composed of a diverse group of materials scientists, chemists, and engineers with wide ranging skills in synthesis, advanced experimental technique development, and analytical analysis. Ultimately, the goal of our group’s work is to have impact on novel applications of polymer membranes and to uncover the fundamental factors that influence the structure and resulting properties of polymeric materials.
Selected from over 65 with more than 3200 citations - full list
Gross, M. L., K. R. Zavadil, M. A. Hickner, “Chemical Mapping and Electrical Conductivity of Carbon Nanotube Patterned Arrays,” J. Mater. Chem. 2011, DOI:10.1039/C1JM11107H.
Kim, S., T. Tighe, B. Schwenzer, J. Yan, J. Zhang, J. Liu, Z. Yang, M. A. Hickner, “Chemical and Mechanical Degradation of Sulfonated Poly(sulfone) Membranes in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries,” J. Appl Electrochem. 2011, DOI:10.1007/s10800-011-0313-0.
Xie, H., T. Saito, M. A. Hickner, “Zeta Potential of Ion-Conductive Membranes by Streaming Current Measurements,” Langmuir 2011, 27(8), 4721–4727.
Mendoza, A. J., M. A. Hickner, J. Morgan, K. Rutter, C. Legzdins, “Raman Spectroscopic Mapping of the Carbon and PTFE Distribution in Gas Diffusion Layers,” Fuel Cells 2011, 11(2), 248-254.
Elabd, Y. A., M. A. Hickner, “Block Copolymers for Fuel Cells,” Macromolecules 2011, 44(1), 1-11.
Saito, T., T. H. Roberts, T. E. Long, B. E. Logan, M. A. Hickner, “Neutral Hydrophilic Cathode Catalyst Binders for Microbial Fuel Cells,” Energ. Environ. Sci. 2011, 4(3), 928-934.
Lee, D. K., T. Saito, A. J. Benesi, M. A. Hickner, H. R. Allcock, “Characterization of Water in Proton Conducting Membranes by Deuterium NMR T1 Relaxation,” J. Phys. Chem. B. 2011, 115(5), 776–783.
Vaughn, D., R. Patel, M. A. Hickner, R. E. Schaak, “Single Crystal Colloidal Nanosheets of GeS and GeSe,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132(43), 15170–15172.
Kim, S., J. Yan, B. Schwenzer, J. Zhang, L. Li, J. Liu, Z. Yang, M. A. Hickner, “Investigation of Sulfonated Poly(phenylsulfone) Membrane for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries,” Electrochem. Comm. 2010, 12, 1650–1653.
Schaefer, Z. L., M. L. Gross, M. A. Hickner, R. E. Schaak, “Uniform Hollow C-Shells: Nano-Engineered Graphitic Supports for Improved Oxygen Reduction Catalysis,” Angew. Chemie Int. Ed. 2010, 49(39), 7045-704.
Moore, H. D., T. Saito, M. A. Hickner “Morphology and Transport Properties of Midblock-sulfonated Triblock Copolymers,” J. Mater. Chem. 2010, 20, 6316-6321.
Hickner, M. A., “Ion-Containing Polymers: Functional Materials for New Energy and Clean Water,” Materials Today 2010, 13(5), 34-41.
Yan, J., M. A. Hickner “Anion Exchange Membranes by Bromination of Benzylmethyl-containing Poly(sulfone)s,” Macromolecules 2010, 43, 2349–2356.
Xu, K., K. Li, C. S. Ewing, M. A. Hickner, Q. Wang, “Synthesis of Proton Conductive Polymers with High Electrochemical Selectivity,” Macromolecules 2010, 43 (4), 1692–1694.
Saito, T., H. D. Moore, M. A. Hickner, “Synthesis of Mid-block Sulfonated Triblock Copolymers,” Macromolecules 2010, 43 (2), 599-601.
Mangiagli, P. M., C. S. Ewing, K. Xu, Q. Wang, M. A. Hickner, “Dynamic Water Uptake of Flexible Ion-Containing Polymer Networks,” Fuel Cells 2009, 9(4), 432-438.
Song, Y., M. A. Hickner, S. R. Challa, R. M. Dorin, R. M. Garcia, H. Wang, Y.-B. Jiang, P. Li, Y. Qiu, F. van Swol, C. J. Medforth, J. E. Miller, T. Nwoga, K. Kawahara, W. Li, J. A. Shelnutt, “Evolution of Dendritic Platinum Nanosheets Into Ripening-Resistant Holey Sheets,” Nano Letters 2009, 9(4), 1534-1539.
Professor Manias received his B.S. degree in Physics from the Aristotle U in Thessaloniki, Greece, and his Ph.D. in Chemistry from U. of Groningen, the Netherlands. He subsequently carried out postdoctoral research in the Materials Science and Engineering department at Cornell U, before joining Penn State as an assistant professor in 1998. His research combines theoretical, simulation, and experimental approaches focused on explaining how nanoscale structures affect the macroscopic materials properties in multi-phase polymer systems, and on further designing appropriate structures and functionalities that lead to high-performance novel materials.
Professor Manias’ research focuses on the development of new high performance polymer and polymer-composite materials, with approaches spanning the range from basic-science fundamentals to engineering development of materials designed for specific applications. All of these research efforts exploit the unique opportunities of nanoscale structures and nanoscopic components in polymer and organic materials.
More specifically, examples of recent work in Professor Manias’ research group include: (a) development of high performance polymer/inorganic nanocomposites, involving synthesis, processing, fundamental physics, and engineering design approaches; (b) atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies of polymer surfaces and polymer nanostructures, including he development of new state-of-the-art instruments and modifications of AFM modes of operation; (c) fundamental understanding of nanoscopically confined polymer electrolytes and lubricants, based on molecular modeling; and (d) design and syntheses of smart polymers that respond to external stimuli –such as temperature, electric fields, and pH– and applications of these smart materials in biomedical and surface applications.
A unique feature of Manias’ research group approach in its investigations is the concurrent in-depth employment of polymer physics, molecular modeling computer simulations, synthetic chemistry, and engineering approaches –design, processing, characterization, structure-property relations, and application-driven materials development. The feedback and cross-fertilization between fundamental science, computer modeling, and engineering approaches offers unprecedented opportunities for fast progress in research, and to date has yielded diverse results that were featured in eminent scientific journals of physics, polymers, and engineering, new technologies that were patented, and new advances in materials that were featured in popularized-science books and magazines.
Suzanne Mohney has been a Professor of Materials Science and Engineering since 2004 and holds the title of Professor of Electrical Engineering. Prior to 2004, she was an Associate or Assistant Professor at Penn State. She earned a Ph.D. in Materials Science at the University of Wisconsin in 1994 and a B.S.Ch.E. summa cum laude from Washington University in St. Louis in 1987. She has been a recipient of research awards from The Electrochemical Society and the Penn State College of Earth and Mineral Science, as well as an award for outstanding teaching from the College. She currently serves as the Editor-in-Chief of the TMS-IEEE Journal of Electronic Materials.
Our research group investigates electronic and photonic materials. Many of our projects focus on metal/semiconductor contacts for electronic and optoelectronic devices. We are also investigating semiconductor nanowires for nanoscale electronics and quantum dots for more efficient white lighting. In addition, we study metallic thin films for interconnects, electronic packaging, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).
The metal/semiconductor contacts we study are an essential part of electronic and optoelectronic devices, including transistors, laser diodes, and solar cells. Controlled metallurgical reactions between the contact metals and the semiconductor are required to engineer the electrical properties of the contacts. On the other hand, uncontrolled reactions can result in nonuniform contacts and poor thermal stability during processing, packaging, or long-term operation. Through an examination of the thermodynamics and kinetics governing interfacial reactions, contacts with greatly improved thermal stability, uniformity, and electrical performance can be designed. This work also involves study of current transport in the contacts and materials characterization using techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, Auger depth profiling, and atomic force microscopy. We work with many families of semiconductors, some of which have been commercialized and others that are in the early stages of development. These materials include III-V compound semiconductors, GaN, SiC, and Si.
Our research on semiconductor nanowires and quantum dots, MEMS, and novel semiconductors is very interdisciplinary, involving collaborations with faculty in electrical engineering, physics, chemical engineering, and other materials disciplines. We also frequently work with researchers from government laboratories and industry.
Carlo G. Pantano received his B.S. Degree in Engineering Science from Newark College of Engineering in 1972, and the M.E. and Ph.D. in Materials Science and Engineering from the University of Florida in 1974 and 1976. His graduate work was primarily in surface science and glass, and then he spent two years in surface science at the University of Dayton Research. He joined Penn State’s Department of Materials Science and Engineering in 1979 with a focus on glass, surfaces and coatings. He is a Fellow of both the American Ceramic Society (ACerS) and the AVS. He is a former Chair of the Glass and Optical Materials Division of the ACerS, and a former US Council Representative for the International Commission on Glass. He was elected to membership in the World Academy of Ceramics, and was awarded the 2005 George W Morey award for outstanding technical contributions to the field of glass science and technology. In 2012, he was the Kreidl Memorial Lecturer and recipient of the University of Florida Distinguished Alumnus Award.
The effect of glass composition and processing on the surface composition and reactivity of glass substrate and fiber glasses is of primary interest. The specific effects of sodium-oxide, boron-oxide and pH on polymer adsorption and adhesion are being characterized using methods including XPS, FTIR, AFM, IGC, NMR, and Raman. In a closely related line of inquiry, the effects of surface composition on chemo-mechanical effects such as stress corrosion, erosion and mechanical deformation are explored with AFM. The electrical poling of glass is being used to further modify the optical properties and dielectric properties of the surface, and to understand glass/metal electrode interfaces. A variety of thin-film coating methods and surface treatments are employed to nanostructure surfaces.
Professor Pantano also has an interest in promoting and facilitating interdisciplinary activities among glass scientists, glass artists, architects and conservators. He created a hot shop for fiber drawing, glass blowing, and related processing methods that has served as an ideal venue to bring together students from different disciplines.
Biotechnology, electronics, and optics including glass substrates for displays, photovoltaics, sensors, microarrays, and MEMS; coatings for architectural and automotive glazing; glass fiber-reinforced composites; glass-bonded abrasives; adhesives for glass; glass cleaning, glass manufacture, and finishing.
Professor Randall received his B.S. degree in Physics at the University of East Anglia (United-Kingdom). He then performed his graduate studies at the University of Essex in Experimental Physics. He then performed post doctoral studies at Pennsylvania State University. He later entered the faculty of Material Science and Engineering in 1994 as an associate professor and become Full professor in 1999. In 1997, he became the Director of the National Science Foundation’s Center for Dielectric Studies at the Pennsylvania State University. He has had a number of visiting positions during his career including Shonan Institite (Japan), EPFL (Switzerland), and University of Sheffield (United Kingdom). In a sabbatical year (2004-2005) he was a Visiting Fellow at Fitzwilliam College, at Cambridge University. He was named Fellow of the American Ceramic Society in 2004. In 2006, he was elected as an Academician to the World’s Congress of Ceramics. He has published over 200 papers and holds 11 patents.
Professor Randall utilizes a combination of the material science approaches of structural-property-process-performance relations and coupling these with material physics to understand and design future generation electroceramic materials and devices. Specific materials the group is studying are ferroelectric and related materials, microwave, and piezoelectric materials in a variety of different forms, ranging from crystal structure, composition, particle and grain size, bulk, film and composites are considered. Our philosophy is to use extreme application needs to direct a fundamental study to enable material advances to be made and implemented. These extreme performance parameters include a combination of temperature, electric field strength, frequency- time and size reduction. Under these conditions, we are concerned with basic mechanisms that control the degradation under all times of use. These time dependant failure mechanisms may be controlled through important physical processes such as electron injection at an electrode or grain boundary, oxygen vacancy migration, defect dipole rotations, thermochemical and electrochemical reactions at interfaces. Any of these or similar phenomena are built into a material through the fabrication thermal processes and remain in a metastable state, but ultimately these defects drive the degradation mechanisms and thereby prevent the implementation of new materials into a system. Once understanding the sources and failure processes, our group develops methods through process modifications or design new materials or chemistries to suppress these deleterious effects. The above approach has proven extremely useful in the education of our students and the research conclusions have attracted collaborations with leading international electroceramic based companies.
High frequency high permittivity dielectrics are being implemented into integrated - tunable Microwave Circuits. Piezoelectric materials are being developed for diesel injection systems. High temperature ferroelectrics are being developed for accelerometers and electronic components. Our protocols for characterizing interfacial phenomena in capacitors are being adopted by manufacturers.
James Runt is currently Professor of Polymer Science in the MatSE Department at Penn State. Dr. Runt is the author of >190 peer-reviewed publications and book chapters. He is a Fellow of the American Physical Society and the American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineers. He is an editor of the ACS Professional Reference Series book: Dielectric Spectroscopy of Polymeric Materials: Fundamentals and Applications, and is a co-editor of the recent ACS Symposium Series book: Polymers for Energy Storage and Delivery: Polyelectrolytes for Batteries and Fuel Cells. He recently served on the Editorial Advisory Board of the journal Macromolecules, and is a member of the Board of Directors of the International Dielectrics Society. Dr. Runt received his B.S. and Ph.D. degrees at Penn State, the latter in Solid State Science (with a concentration in polymeric materials).
Broadband dielectric spectroscopy; polymer dynamics
Ion-containing polymers: electrolytes, ionomers
Segmented polyurethane and polyurea block copolymers
Hydrogen bonded polymer blends and solutions
Polymers with intrinsic microporosity (PIMs)
Crystalline polymers, from renewable resources
Nanoscale structure and morphology
Our group’s research is focused on three principle areas:
Polymers in energy applications; Polyurethanes and polyureas; Li ion battery electrolytes; Ionomers; Polymers of intrinsic microporosity; Blood-contacting polymers in biomedical devices; Polymer blends/alloys; High performance polymers.
Ralph H. Colby received his B.S. in Materials Science and Engineering from Cornell University in 1979. After working for two years at the General Electric Company in rheology research and process development, he attended graduate school at Northwestern University, where he received his M.S. and Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering in 1983 and 1985. Graduate research focused on rheology of linear polybutadiene melts and solutions, and included 15 months as a visiting scholar in the Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Corporate Research - Science Laboratories. He then worked for ten years at the Eastman Kodak Company in their Corporate Research Laboratories. Rheology research areas over these ten years included linear polymer melts and solutions, miscible polymer blends, block copolymers, randomly branched polymers, polymer gels, liquid crystalline polymers, polyelectrolytes, proteins, surfactants and colloidal suspensions. In 1995, Dr. Colby was hired as Associate Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at the Pennsylvania State University and was promoted to Professor in 2000. He teaches an undergraduate course on Polymer Processing and a graduate course on Polymer Physics. Dr. Colby has over 130 publications and published a textbook Polymer Physics in 2003.
Professor Colby’s research group is interested in a molecular-level understanding of dynamics in interesting liquids. Polymer liquids are good examples because they are viscoelastic: While polymer liquids do flow, they have considerable elastic character. Other examples include many “complex fluids” such as liquid crystals and surfactants. The Colby group measures the dynamics of these liquids using mechanical rheology and dielectric spectroscopy and also characterizes the liquid structure using neutron and x-ray scattering and optical methods. This is classical materials science research on structure-property relations but at the same time is highly innovative because it is applied to the liquid state! One nice example is the study of ion transport in ionomer membranes. Ionomers are polymers with one type of ion covalently bonded to the chain and are ‘single-ion conductors’ in that only the unattached counterions can move rapidly in response to an applied electric field. Designing ionomers for facile ion transport is challenging and the Colby group is attacking this problem with ab initio calculations of ion interactions that guides our synthesis of new ionomers. We use small-angle X-ray scattering (picture above), mechanical rheology and dielectric spectroscopy to understand what the ions are doing in these new ionomers. We quantify the temperature dependences of the fraction of ions in ion pairs, conducting triple ions and quadrupoles, for different ionomers with various counterions (figure below). There are a great many interesting liquids known in the world today and more are being discovered every day. The Colby group’s mission is to understand in detail the structure-property relations of all interesting liquids. This is a great challenge and as such, only the best highly motivated students are able to participate in this exciting mission.
Polymer dynamics, characterized by rheology, plays a vital role in solution and melt processing of polymers. Ion-containing polymers are a poorly understood class of materials that are potentially very important for actuators, sensors, separators between the electrodes of advanced batteries and fuel cell membranes.
T. C. Mike Chung
Professor of Materials Science and Engineering
325 Steidle Bldg.
Professor Chung obtained his B. S. in Chemistry from Chung Yuan University (Taiwan) in 1976. He came to the U. S. for his graduate study in the Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania in 1979. After finishing his Ph.D work in 1982 on conducting polymers (with Professor A. J. MacDiarmid, Nobel Laureate), he spend two years as a Research Scientist at Institute for polymers and Organic Solids (with Professor Alan J. Heeger, Nobel Laureate), University of California, Santa Barbara. Between 1984 and 1989, he was a Senior Research Staff in Corporate Research, Exxon Company. In 1989 he joined the faculty of the Pennsylvania State University as an associate professor and became professor of Polymer Science in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering in 1993. He is author of about 200 professional publications, including 2 books and 45 U.S. patents.
Professor Chung is interested in the development of new polymer chemistry that can lead to new materials with unique chemical and physical properties for applications. In his recent research activities, he has been focusing on the technologies relative to energy and environmental issues. Several current research projects include (a) functionalization of polyolefins (PE, PP, EP, etc.) via the combination of metallocene catalysts and reactive comonomers and chain transfer agents to prepare polyolefins containing side-chain or chain-end functional groups, (b) synthesis of long chain branched polyolefin, including i-PP and s-PS, and studying their thin film processing, (c) studying control radical polymerization based on new functional borane/oxygen initiators to prepare functional fluoropolymers, (d) developing new energy storage technology on the polymer thin film capacitors with high energy density, high power density, and low loss, (e) studying new polyolefin-based ion conductors that show high ion conductivity, good fuel selectivity, long term stability, and cost effective, (f) investigating new polyolefin-based oil superabsorbent (oil-SAP) for oil spill recovery, (g) synthesizing boron substituted carbon (B/C) materials and doped derivatives for hydrogen storage. My group at Penn State is recognized as a leading research group in the functionalization of polyolefin and fluoropolymers with more than 180 papers and 50 US and international patents published in the past 20 years.
In light of the 2010 BP disaster in Gulf of Mexico and the 2011 Exxon oil spill in Yellowstone river, showing no effective technology for recovering oil spills and preventing pollution in the air and water, we have recently developed a new polyolefin-based oil super-absorbent polymer (oil-SAP) that exhibits high oil absorption capability (up to 50 times of its weight), fast kinetics, easy recovery from water surface, and no water absorption. The recovered oil/oil-SAP solid is suitable for regular refining process (no pollutants and no wastes). This cost effective new oil-SAP technology shall dramatically reduce the environmental impacts from oil spills and recover most of precious natural resource.
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